The Collapse of the INF Treaty Regime and the Future of European Security

On August 19, 2019, the United States tested a “conventionally-configured ground-launched cruise missile” in California for the first time in more than three decades. A nuclear version of such a missile, namely the BGM-109G Gryphon, had become operational in 1984, but was eliminated as a result of the conclusion in 1987 of the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty (better known as the “INF Treaty”). Yet, on August 2nd, that treaty expired, following U.S. withdrawal. Symbolically, this may have brought to an end the period known as the post-Cold War era. Read more ...